Andrology is a section of urology which deals with health problems of male genitals. Male diseases include abnormal development of reproductive organs which are congenital or caused genetically.
The most common diseases in men are erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation, inflammatory diseases of male genitals (prostatitis, epididymitis, urethritis, etc.), traumas of the scrotum and penis, and neoplasms (prostate adenoma and prostate cancer). Genital diseases in men lead to a decrease in sexual and reproductive functions.
1. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the formation of nodules in the prostate, which compresses the urethra. BPH disturbs urination, which is the main symptom of the disease. It does not spread to other organs because it is a benign tumor.
Symptoms of BPH:
- Frequent urination
- Urgency to urinate at night, which leads to an interruption of sleep
- The need to urinate immediately after the urination
- Feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder
- Urinary incontinence
Treatment of BPH can be medicamentous, non-surgical, or surgical. Medicamentous treatment of the disease is excellent only in the early stages. Today, there are drugs that can not only simplify the course of the disease but also minimize the size of an enlarged prostate gland.
2. Erectile Dysfunction
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the absence of penile erection in men, leading to the impossibility of sexual intercourse. Often, it is a pathological condition accompanied by the lack of desire (libido), orgasm, rapid ejaculation, which greatly reduces the quality of sexual life and has a negative impact on the psycho-emotional status of men.
Symptoms of erectile dysfunction:
- Absence of an erection
- Weak erection
- Inability to maintain an erection
- Premature ejaculation
Medicamentous treatment of ED includes the use of oral medications, intracavernous and intraurethral injection of therapeutic substances, and therapy that eliminates the causes of ED. Today, there are many medicines for the treatment of the disease. In most cases, they are one-time erection stimulants or substances that help treat psychogenic potency disorders.
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3. Premature Ejaculation
Premature ejaculation (PE) in men is the inability to control ejaculation to get satisfaction from sexual intercourse. This is an ejaculation that occurs with minimal sexual stimulation.
Treatment of PE is only possible after finding out the true cause of this condition. A comprehensive diagnosis of the patient is carried out for this purpose.
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Balanitis is an inflammation of the head of the penis. The main symptoms of balanitis are pain, itching, redness, and swelling in the penis head. There may be purulent discharge from under the foreskin.
Diagnosis of the disease is made during the inspection by an urologist. Balanitis is treated with antibiotics prescribed by a doctor.
Prostatitis is an inflammatory disease of the prostate gland. Prostatitis is the most common inflammatory disease of genitals in men. It can be acute or chronic.
Symptoms of acute prostatitis are pain, fever, and chills. Chronic prostatitis may be asymptomatic. However, men who suffer from chronic prostatitis often complain about having aches in the perineum and recurrent urinary disorders. Over time the disease can lead to such serious problems as reduced potency and infertility.
You cannot resort to self-treatment of prostatitis. Only a doctor will be able to make a correct diagnosis, determine the real cause, and select the right treatment.
Varicocele is varicose veins of spermatic cord and testicle that forms a so-called pampiniform testicular plexus. Typically, patients complain about having pain in one or both testicles, scrotum, and the groin area on the affected side. Pain gets worse during physical activity, walking, and sexual intercourse.
7. Delayed Ejaculation
Delayed ejaculation is a disorder when a man needs more than 30 minutes of sexual stimulation to reach orgasm and ejaculate. The disease can be primary, the absence of ejaculation in past history, and secondary, the loss of the ability to ejaculate.
Treatment of the disorder includes behavioral therapy aimed at reducing anxiety and training men the methods of control over ejaculation.
Cavernitis is an inflammatory pathology in the cavernous bodies of the penis. The disease is dangerous because it can substantially disrupt the quality of sexual life of the patient and reduce a fertile function.
The main symptoms of the disease:
- Severe pain in the penis
- Penile edema
- Painful erections, accompanied by a curvature of the penis
A timely visit to a doctor is the best prevention of harmful effects of the disease. The treatment includes antibiotics (macrolides, aminoglycosides, penicillins, and nitrofurans), immunostimulants, and anti-inflammatory drugs.
Paraphimosis is a medical condition when the foreskin of the penis is trapped behind the head of the penis and cannot be pulled back to its normal position covering the head.
The symptoms of the disease include severe pain, difficult urination, and swelling of the glans penis and foreskin.
Paraphimosis requires urgent medical intervention. Patients use ice packs, cold compresses, bandages with hypertonic saline, local anesthetics, as well as get hyaluronidase injections into the swollen area.
Vesiculitis is inflammation of one or both of the seminal vesicles. The disease begins with a fever and headache. There might be pain in the groin, rectal area, and lower abdomen. Ejaculations might be painful as well.
Treatment of vesiculitis should include comprehensive therapy, prostate massage, physiotherapy, and immunocorrection therapy.
Urethritis is an inflammation of the urethra, the main symptom of which is pain when urinating and discharge from the urethra. Infectious urethritis is treated with antibiotics. They are effective but destroy normal microflora in the gut. Thus, it is recommended to use antimicrobial drugs that are not harmful to gut flora.
Epididymitis is inflammation of the epididymis. It is characterized by sudden onset and high fever. Patients complain about having aches and swelling in the scrotum. Epididymis increases in several times and there is redness of the skin of the scrotum. The disease can develop into a bilateral lesion of the appendages, chronic form of epididymitis, ejaculatory duct obstruction, and infertility.
Treatment of epididymitis includes bed rest and immobility of the scrotum. Patients are prescribed antibiotics for the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms.
Orchitis is inflammation of the testicle. It happens as a complication of infectious diseases or injuries of the scrotum. Orchitis develops very fast, the testicle increases and becomes hard and painful. Patients might also have fever.
Treatment requires anti-inflammatory and bactericidal therapy.
Atherosclerosis is an arterial disease when cholesterol is deposited in the vessel walls. Atherosclerosis often affects thoracic and abdominal aortas, coronary, mesenteric, and renal vessels, as well as the arteries of the lower extremities and the brain.
Today, there are many drugs that help treat atherosclerosis.
15. Circulatory Collapse
Circulatory collapse is a condition characterized by general or specific failure of the circulation. The circulatory system fails to maintain the oxygen supply and other nutrients to the tissues and remove the carbon dioxide from them. The main symptoms are fainting, shock, or collapse.
Treatment includes non-drug therapies and prescription of various medications.
16. Myocardial Infraction
Myocardial infarction (heart attack) is the damage to the heart muscle caused by blood supply failure due to thrombosis of one of the arteries of the heart.
The main symptoms of a heart attack:
- Severe pain behind the breastbone. It can spread to the left arm, shoulder, left side of the neck, and interscapulum.
- The attack is accompanied by a sense of fear.
- Nitroglycerin does not relieve the pain.
- An attack may occur at rest, without apparent reason. The pain lasts from 15 minutes to several hours.
Thrombolytic drugs are used to dissolve a blood clot in the coronary arteries.
A stroke occurs when the blood flow stops getting to the brain. As a result, the brain does not receive enough oxygen and necessary nutrients. After a few minutes, the brain cells begin to die.
Main symptoms include:
- Altered movement coordination
- Weakness in tongue
- Numbness or paralysis on one side of the face or the body
- Visual field defect
- A sudden and severe headache
Treatment is aimed at the restoration of damaged areas of the nervous tissue and protection of nerve cells. Certain drugs successfully combine both of these effects and can be used for a complex treatment of stroke.
Depression develops because of stress or prolonged traumatic situation. The main sign of depressive disorders is constant bad mood.
Left untreated, depression can last for months or even years. The basis of treatment is the use of medications and psychotherapy.
Drugs for treating depression (antidepressants) are selected individually for each patient and are taken continuously for several months. Drug treatment will be successful if the patient strictly follows the recommended dosage.
19. Enteric Infections
Enteric infections are a group of infectious diseases that primarily damage the digestive tract. Infection occurs when the pathogen gets in the intestine through the mouth usually with contaminated food and water. There are 30 types of enteric infections. The most common are food poisoning, typhoid, botulism, salmonellosis, and dysentery.
Treatment of enteric infections is complex and includes the fight against microbial toxins, microbes, as well as dehydration.
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